CRM tactics and outlets include, but are not limited to, direct mailings, emails, advertisements, surveys, automated service channels (ex. Internet access, phone and voice recognition programs), transaction kiosks (Sun, 2006, p. 594), opinion polls, incentive based activities, reward and loyalty systems, preferred customer packages, warranty programs, and press conferences (Venkatesan, Kumar, & Bohling, 2007; Fletcher, 2003; Boulding et al, 2005). Many of the programs listed above are often used in conjunction with another, and practiced by virtually every department within an organization (West, 2001; Khalifa & Shenn, 2009; Tanner et al, 2005; Fletcher, 2003). CRM functions may be operator-based services (such as call center and mailings), self-service (leaflets, ATMs) (Sun, 2006), based entirely online via eCRM (web pages, access to forms, information) (Horn, Feinberg, & Salvendy, 2005), or include all of the above, depending upon the budget and access allotted from an organization for CRM development. The CRM programs themselves are either created through in-house departments (IT, marketing), outsourced through hired consultants, or purchase program packets for implementation (Sun, 2006).” – Jabaree Dunham-Carson, 2015
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